The primary use of the 1¢ Large and Small Queen stamp was to pay the rate for first class letters posted and delivered at the same Post Office, more commonly known as a drop letter. These stamps were also used to pay for various business oriented uses; cicrulars, price lists, printed papers, hand bills, and pamphlets.




1¢ LARGE QUEEN     1868-1870



A Trial Color Proof in Blue printed on India.



A strip in Green from the Trade Sample Sheet.



A block in Brown Red perforated 12.0x12.0.



A cover showing the 1¢ drop letter rate, dated February 19, 1869. The stamp is Perforated 12.0x12.0



A folded freight circular to the USA dated May 22, 1869. The stamp is perforated 12.0x12.0



A folded price circular dated October 10, 1868. The stamp is perforated 12.0x12.0



1¢ SMALL QUEEN     1870-1897



Die Proof in Yellow printed on India.


Essays in Bright Blue and Grey


Essay in Orange with thin lettering in "ONE CENT".

.
Trial Color Proof in Grey with lathework and guide lines.



Die Proof in Bright Yellow on India
Trial Color Proof in Dull Blue on India



A Trial Color Proof in Green printed on glazed paper.


A pair in Red Brown cut from a Trade Sample sheet.
This is the only Small Queen value on the sheet, and thus indicates that the 1¢ was the first value to be designed.


Proofs in Yellow Brown and Grey.
These could be cut down Trial Color Proofs, Plate Proofs, or cut from a Trade Sample sheet.



Perforation and color varieties

The dates shown below are at best approximate.
I have dated stamps that match the dates shown, but there are undoubtedly others.

Shades
The colors in the table are arbitrary since there is an almost infinite progression of shades between any of the colors.

Perforations
The perforations in the period 1870-75 are very consistent, they are always 11.9x11.9
In the period 1876-1879, 11.9x11.9, 12.0x12.0, and 12.0x12.2 are known.

All mint blocks or imprint items that I have are perfed in the manner shown in the table.
There are numerous used single stamps dated in this period that have slight differences in perforation,
such as 11.8x11.9. I am quite suspicious of any single used stamp since it has probably been exposed to water
and may have shrunk or been pressed out.

Printing Location
Date
Shade
Perforation
Ottawa
1870-72
Red Orange
11.9x11.9
Ottawa
1870-72
Orange
11.9x11.9
Ottawa
1871
Yellow Orange
11.9x11.9
Montreal
1873
Light Orange
11.6x11.9
Montreal
1873-76
Orange Yellow
11.6x11.9
Montreal
1876-79
Dull Yellow
11.6x11.9
Montreal
1877
Lemon Yellow
11.6x11.9
Montreal
1876-79
Orange Yellow
12.0x12.0
Montreal
1877-79
Yellow
12.0x12.0
Montreal
1876-79
Dull Yellow
12.0x12.0
Montreal
1879
Lemon Yellow
12.0x12.0
Montreal
1876-79
Orange Yellow
12.0x12.0
Montreal
1876-79
Orange Yellow
12.0x12.2
Montreal
1878-88
Bright Yellow
12.0x12.2
Ottawa
1889-97
Orange Yellow
12.0x12.2
Ottawa
1889-97
Bright Yellow
12.0x12.0




First Ottawa Printings     1870-1873


Two plates were used for the initial printings.
Both were plates with a single panes of 100 subjects, with a Type IV Montreal and Ottawa imprint.
Each plate also had a counter in seriffed shaded capital letters.
These plates were also used in the early printings at Montreal.



Orange Perforated 11.9x11.9



Earliest Recorded Date on cover.   February 18, 1870.   The stamp is perforated 11.9x11.9



A folded price circular dated August 26, 1870.   The stamp is perforated 11.9x11.9



Montreal Printings     1873-1889


The first plates(Type IV imprint) continued in use at Montreal.


Light Orange Perforated 11.6x11.9


Light Orange Perforated 11.6x11.9


Dull Yellow Perforated 11.6x11.9


Two new plates with Type V imprints were next in use for The Montreal Printings.
One plate has a Type Va imprint(with side dots) and the other is a Type IVb(without dots).
The plate with a Type Vb imprint also has a reversed "3" in the upper right margin.
The two plates can be distinguished by the alignment of the counter.


Type IVa Plate
"3" Plate




Orange Yellow Perforated 12.1x12.1 with Type IVa imprint.


Orange Yellow Perforated 12.1x12.1 with Type Va imprint and shaded counter.


Bright Yellow Perforated 12.1x12.1 with Type Vb imprint, "3" in right margin and shaded counter.


Three new two pane plates with a similar layout were made in the early years at Montreal.
These had the Type V Montreal imprint and seriffed, shaded counters.
The plates had check numbers(letters) above the imprint on each pane.

Check letters "D" and "E" on the first plate.
Check letters "F" and "G" on the second plate.
Check letters "H" and "I" on the third plate.




A block from the "F" pane with a hand punched "R" showing that the plate has been repaired.
Stamps are Orange Yellow perforated 12.1x12.1


A strip from the "G" pane. with a hand punched "R" showing that the plate has been repaired.
Stamps are Orange Yellow perforated 12.1x12.1


Imprint block of eight, Bright Yellow, perforated 12.1x12.1.


Imprint block of eight from the "H" pane defaced to show that the plate was destroyed.



At some point in the late 1870's or early 1880's the 11.9 perforation wheels were replaced by
new ones measuring 12.0 and 12.1. A few examples of the first group of Montreal plates can
be found with these perforations.


Yellow
Dull Yellow
Lemon Yellow
Perfed 12.0x12.0
Perfed 12.0x12.0
Perfed 12.2x12.0
a distinctive shade with hints
of Brown and Green.




An envelope which states on the front that it contains a price circular, and hence a 1¢ rate is allowed. It is dated October 30, 1878 on the reverse.




Private Postcards were allowed up to July of 1877 when a Post Office regulation made it a requirement to use only those cards printed by the Post Office.



A Private Post card dated January 15, 1877.


Four new plates were made in the early 1880's each having the Montreal Type V imprint.
These plates had the usual top and bottom imprints, but did not have side imprints.
They had check letters S1,S2,S3,S4 above the imprint.


Strip of ten from plate S1, Orange Yellow, perforated 12.0x12.0.


Strip of ten from plate S2, Orange Yellow, perforated 12.0x12.0.


Strip of six from plate S3, Bright Yellow, perforated 12.1x12.1.


Strip of four, Bright Yellow, perforated 12.0x12.0.


Strip of ten from plate S4, Orange Yellow, perforated 12.0x12.0.


Block of four, Orange Yellow, perfed 12.0x12.2.



Second Ottawa Printings     1889-1897


In 1892 four additional plates were made with the Type VII Ottawa imprint.
They had plate check numbers "A","B","C","D"
The plates had two panes of 100, and each pane had a plain lettered counter.



Strip of four from plate "A", Orange Yellow, perforated 12.0x12.1.


Pair from plate "B", Orange Yellow, perforated 12.1x12.1.


Pair from plate "C", Orange Yellow, perforated 12.1x12.1.


Strip from plate "D", Orange Yellow, perforated 12.0x12.1.


Strip of four with bottom imprint, Orange Yellow, perforated 12.0x12.1.


Strip of 10 with counter from the left pane and Plate C, light Orange Yellow, perforated 12.1x12.1.


Block of eight with counter from the right pane, light Orange Yellow, perforated 12.0x12.1.


Lower block of four with imprint, Bright Yellow, perforateded 12.0x12.0.
A relatively rare perforation for the later Ottawa printings.



A fifth class letter, sent unsealed(open for inspection) to the United States. Dated January 7, 1895.



A newspaper wrapper with a bisected 1c paying the newspaper rate. Dated 22/2/97 on the reverse.



From 1877 until 1895 only Postcards printed by the Post Office were allowed.
Private Post cards were allowed beginning in 1895. The rate for a domestic postcard was one cent.



Upper block of four with part counter and another with part imprint, light Orange Yellow, imperforate.
Plate "H" is known for certain, examples from other plates may exist.



Overprinted "SPECIMEN" in Violet.
These stamps were prepared in the mid 1890's for distribution to other UPU countries.
Three different types of overprint are known.